Relaciones públicas y tecnología: la interactividad como punto de encuentro entre las ONG y sus públicos / Public relations and technology: interactivity as a meeting point between NGOs and their audiences

Andrea Leticia Quintana-Pujalte

Resumen


Este estudio pone foco en los procesos de interactividad perceptibles en los sitios corporativos de unos actores políticos no tradicionales de enorme importancia en las sociedades cada vez más desiguales: las organizaciones no gubernamentales. Se toma como referencia a otros estudios similares, y se selecciona una muestra de siete ONG de Cooperación al Desarrollo que operan en España. Desde este corpus se analiza el nivel de interactividad que ofrecen estas entidades en sus sitios web, y se interpreta el tipo de vínculo que establecen con sus públicos desde los espacios de participación e interactividad que propician. El estudio concluye que estas ONG ofrecen altos niveles de interactividad en sus sitios corporativos, sin embargo, el primer contacto que ofrecen a partir del llamado a la acción de las páginas web apunta a solicitar aportes económicos, lo cual impactaría negativamente en la generación de un vínculo a largo plazo entre estas ONG y sus públicos.

Palabras claves: Interactividad, relaciones públicas 2.0, organizaciones no gubernamentales, actores políticos, influencia

Abstract

This study focuses on the perceptible interactivity processes in the corporate websites of non-traditional political actors of enormous importance in increasingly unequal societies: non-governmental organizations. To carry out this study, another similar research is taken as a reference on the methodological matter (Caprioti et al, 2016; Smolak and Castillo, 2017). In the first part of the article, we make a theoretical review about how interactivity gets to establish as an issue for public relations scholars. This is a subject that has been being studied for almost twenty years in the academic field.

Then, in the methodology section, to analyze the interactivity level of these websites, a sample of seven NGOs dedicated to Development Cooperation that operate in Spain is selected. These NGOs have the greatest annual budget, and we decided to pick only the ones that do not have a religious basis. The Spanish NGOs that enter on that category are: Oxfam Intermon; Plan Internacional España; Educo; Cruz Roja Española; Save The Children España; Acción contra el Hambre y Ayuda en Acción. We carry out a content analysis is that aims to identify the expression of two categories, Information Presentation Tools and Virtual Visitor Resources. To carry out the methodology, we use a model created by the studies mentioned above. Based on the detection of these categories on each NGO website, the level of interactivity offered by these entities is analyzed, and the type of relationship they establish with their audiences is interpreted from the spaces for participation and interactivity that they promote. The analysis is complemented with the study of the "call to action" present on each web page, as a singular element of web design that aims to establish a privileged contact with the public. Among the results, we can say that several NGOs are using the same tools to get in contact with their audiences. Also, they implement different kinds of digital spaces to get more interactivity with their stakeholders. Nevertheless, we also identified that the first contact that they offer from their websites is asking for money, which might be a problem for them as non-traditional political actors who depends on their capacity of influence in the political system. This action may have an impact on the way people think about them, and the symbolic capital of these entities may be at stake.

The research concludes that the NGOs that are part of the study offer high levels of interactivity on their corporate websites, however, the first contact they offer from the call to action of the web pages aims to request financial contributions, which would negatively impact in generating a long-term bond between these NGOs and their audiences. With this first contact, they are communicating that their stakeholders are just money givers, and not citizens how are committed to changing the odds of unequal situations. These results are a contribution to the existing scientific literature about public relations and interactivity on the NGOs, and invite a critical reflection on the actions of digital communication from NGOs for development, non-traditional political actors of enormous importance in the current context.

Keywords: Interactivity, public relations 2.0, non-governmental organizations, political actors, influence

 


Citas


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