Comunicación corporativa durante la pandemia Un análisis de las portadas de la prensa económica española durante el 2020 / Corporate communication during the pandemic An analysis of the front pages of the Spanish business press in 2020

Francisco Leslie López del Castillo Wilderbeek

Resumen


La pandemia por la COVID-19 llegada en 2020 ha afectado a todo el panorama mediático y, por tanto, también a la comunicación corporativa. El propósito de esta investigación ha sido analizar los temas principales de portada de los tres diarios económicos españoles durante el 2020 para evaluar si la pandemia ha condicionado la comunicación corporativa de las organizaciones y si procede, en qué medida ha sido. El análisis se ha llevado a cabo aplicando análisis de contenido de las portadas en medios económicos españoles de referencia: quality papers (Alvarado, 2008). Los resultados obtenidos señalan que la crisis sanitaria ha absorbido los temas principales de las portadas de los diarios económicos hasta dejar sólo la mitad de cobertura disponible para otros temas. Dentro de este fenómeno de apropiación los efectos en el empleo tuvieron el mayor protagonismo con un 10% de presencia en todos los titulares analizados. Por otro lado, en el espacio no ocupado por la pandemia se observó que la cobertura sobre la fusión Caixabank – Bankia fue la más relevante en comparación con la cobertura del resto de organizaciones. La conclusión más importante que puede extraerse de esta investigación es que la comunicación corporativa de las organizaciones no desapareció durante el 2020 pese a los estragos de la pandemia aunque sí se redujo en un 50%. Este hallazgo indica que se intensificó la presión para que las organizaciones pudieran trasladar sus mensajes. De la misma forma la cobertura lograda en las portadas mantuvo un enfoque empresarial y no fue un camino para la difusión de los esfuerzos en RSC.

Palabras clave: pandemia, COVID-19, comunicación corporativa, portadas, medios económicos, titulares

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic that arrived in 2020 has affected the entire media landscape and corporate communication. This research has analysed the main topics on the front pages of the three Spanish economic newspapers during 2020: Expansión, Cinco Días and El Economista. The evaluation of the main front page topics has made it possible to quantify the extent to which the pandemic has displaced the coverage devoted to corporate communications in organizations. In addition, it has been possible to observe which organizations have successfully spreading their messages and which specific issues have been most related to the pandemic.

The results obtained show that the health crisis has absorbed the main topics of the front pages of the economic newspapers, leaving only half of the coverage available for other topics. Within this phenomenon of absorption, the effects on employment had the greatest prominence with a 10% presence in all the headlines analysed. The coverage on unemployment is especially important if it is related to the tourism sector, which was the industry with the highest presence on the front pages (36.6% of all topics categorized as COVID-19). The significant presence of both topics indirectly points to the important weight of tourism in the Spanish economy. However, it is not possible to state that all related topics were negative because there was also coverage focused on economic recovery (4.4%).

On the other hand, in the space not occupied by the pandemic, it was observed that the coverage of the Caixabank - Bankia merger was the most important in comparison with the coverage of the rest of the organizations. This business initiative achieved 2.65% of front-page topics since the pandemic began, in a scenario that was very limited. In general, mergers and acquisitions were the most important topic in 2020, as the second most covered specific topic was the failed merger between Banc Sabadell and BBVA. Telefonica was also among the companies with the most front-page coverage, although with a greater diversity of topics. The rest of the companies analysed also showed a wide variety of corporate topics as dividend management, cash flow movements and business diversification.

It was also noted that the coverage achieved on the front pages maintained a business focus and wasn’t a vehicle for disseminating CSR efforts related to the pandemic. This is a very significant result because much recent literature has argued that during the pandemic, CSR has played an important role in the communication strategies of organizations. However, it seems that these actions have not been enough important to get a prominent position on the front page of Spanish business newspapers.

The most important conclusion that can be drawn from this research is that corporate communication by organizations did not disappear during 2020 despite the ravages of the pandemic but was reduced by 50%. This reduction also shows a very important effect to take into consideration. During the year 2020 organizations had to work much harder to be in the spotlight even though the economic coverage of the analysed media did not completely disappear because of the pandemic.

 

Keywords: pandemic, COVID-19, corporate communication, front page, business press, headlines


Citas


ABELA, J. A. (2002). Las técnicas de análisis de contenido: una revisión actualizada. Sevilla: Fundación Centro de Estudios Andaluces.

ALVARADO, H. (2008). El rostro de la prensa de calidad. La información internacional desde la portada de los grandes diarios europeos. Textual & Visual Media, (1), 21-48. Recuperado el 25 de agosto de 2021, de https://textualvisualmedia.com/index.php/txtvmedia/article/download/1/7

CAMILLERI, M. A. (2021). Strategic dialogic communication through digital media during COVID-19 crisis. In Strategic corporate communication in the digital age. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

CAPRIOTTI, P. (1999). Comunicación corporativa: una estrategia de éxito a corto plazo. Reporte C&D–Capacitación y desarrollo, 13, 30-33. Recuperado el 25 de agosto de 2021, de http://bidireccional.net/Blog/Comunicacion_Corporativa_1.pdf

CASERO-RIPOLLÉS, A. (2020). Impacto del Covid-19 en el sistema de medios. Consecuencias comunicativas y democráticas del consumo de noticias durante el brote. Profesional de la Información, 29(2). https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2316-9125.v25i1p109-129.

CRANE, A., & MATTEN, D. (2020). COVID‐19 and the future of CSR research. Journal of Management Studies 58(1), 280-284. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12642 .

DANIELSON, W. A., & LASORSA, D. L. (2020). Perceptions of social change: 100 years of front-page content in The New York Times and The Los Angeles Times. In Roberts, C. W. (ed.) Text Analysis for the Social Sciences (pp. 103-116). London: Routledge.

FRANDSEN, F., & JOHANSEN, W. (2018). Corporate communication. The International Encyclopedia of Strategic Communication, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119010722.iesc0048.

GIGAURI, I. (2021). Corporate Social Responsibility and COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis: Evidence from Georgia. International Journal of Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Corporate Social Responsibility (IJSECSR), 6(1), 30-47. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijsecsr.2021010103.

GRUNIG, J. E., GRUNIG, L. A., SRIRAMESH, K., HUANG, Y. H., & LYRA, A. (1995). Models of public relations in an international setting. Journal of public relations research, 7(3), 163-186. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532754xjprr0703_01.

HALLAHAN, K. (2010). Public relations media. In R. L. Heath (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of public relations (2nd ed., pp. 623–641). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

HE, H., & HARRIS, L. (2020). The impact of Covid-19 pandemic on corporate social responsibility and marketing philosophy. Journal of Business Research, 116, 176-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.05.030.

HUA, J., & SHAW, R. (2020). Corona virus (Covid-19) "infodemic" and emerging issues through a data lens: The case of china. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(7), 2309. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072309.

INSTITUTO DE ESTUDIOS ECONÓMICOS (14 de junio de 2020). Los servicios suponen un 77,9% del empleo total en España en 2018, por encima de la media europea. Recuperado el 25 de agosto de 2021, de https://bit.ly/3yGdG9o.

GUTIÉRREZ, E. C. (2013). El periodismo económico y su desarrollo y expansión en la web 2.0/Economic Journalism: The Development and Expansion in the Web 2.0. Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico, 19(1), 35-51. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_esmp.2013.v19.n1.42506

LÓPEZ-RABADÁN, P., & CASERO-RIPOLLÉS, A. (2012). La evolución de la agenda mediática española (1980-2010). Un análisis longitudinal de la portada de la prensa de referencia. Revista Latina de comunicación social, (67), 470-493 https://doi.org/10.4185/rlcs-2012-964.

THEAKER, A. (2012). What is public relations? (pp. 19-29). London; New York: Routledge.

MACNAMARA, J. (2021). New insights into crisis communication from an “inside” emic perspective during COVID-19. Public Relations Inquiry, 10(2) https://doi.org/10.1177/2046147x21999972.

NEUENDORF, K. A. (2017). The content analysis guidebook. Los Angeles; London; New Delhi; Singapore; Washington, DC; Melbourne: Sage.

PRISA (2020). Perfil del lector. Recuperado el 25 de agosto de 2021, de https://www.prisabs.com/es/info/cinco-dias.

KRIPPENDORFF, K. (2018). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Beverly Hills: Sage publications.

UNIDAD EDITORIAL (2019). Media book delegaciones 2019. Recuperado el 25 de agosto de 2021, de https://bit.ly/3EaeW5P.

VÁLLEZ, M., & PÉREZ-MONTORO, M. (2020). La comunicación periodística en tiempos de pandemia: análisis del tratamiento de la COVID-19 en la prensa europea. Hipertext. net, (21), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.31009/hipertext.net.2020.i21.01.

VOCENTO (2020). Argumentario El Economista. Recuperado el 25 de agosto de 2021, de http://s01.s3c.es/imag3/Marketing/documentos/argumentario.pdf

XIFRA, J. (2020). Comunicación corporativa, relaciones públicas y gestión del riesgo reputacional en tiempos del Covid-19. El profesional de la información (EPI), 29(2). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.mar.20.

ZERFASS, A., VERČIČ, D., & WIESENBERG, M. (2016). The dawn of a new golden age for media relations?: How PR professionals interact with the mass media and use new collaboration practices. Public relations review, 42(4), 499-508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2016.03.005.

VAN DIJK, T. A., & GAL, G. (1990). La noticia como discurso: comprensión, estructura y producción de la información (pp. 21-260). Barcelona: Paidós.


Texto completo: VER PDF

Refbacks

  • No hay Refbacks actualmente.


Creative Commons License
Este trabajo está licenciado bajo la licencia Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 .

Revista incluida en Emerging Source Citation Index (ESCI - Thomson Reuters), ERIH PLUS, Catálogo Latindex, Dulcinea, e-Revistas, DICE, RESH, CIRC, ISOC, Dialnet, ULRICH, EBSCO, DOAJ, REBIUN, MIAR, Dialnet Métrics, Q1 en Ranking REDIB.

ISSN: 2174-3681

Prefijo DOI: 10.5783

Miembro de CrossRef

Síguenos en Twitter