El papel del medio y las emociones en la comunicación en crisis. Estudio experimental de Twitter, Facebook y ELCOMERCIO.com en Ecuador / The role of media and emotions in crisis communication: Experimental study about Twitter, Facebook and ELCOMERCIO.com

Patricia Henríquez-Coronel, Daniel Barredo-Ibáñez, Juan Pablo Trámpuz

Resumen


En la presente investigación, se toma el terremoto de Manabí (Ecuador) de 2016 como caso de estudio, a partir de la crisis asociada a la pérdida del servicio de telecomunicaciones de la empresa Movistar®. Con este propósito, se desarrolló un experimento con 180 estudiantes universitarios.  En el experimento se manipulan las variables tipo de medio y exposición a la crisis y se miden las percepciones alrededor de tres variables dependientes: reputación, reacción de crisis y comunicación secundaria de crisis.  Los resultados señalan que los cibermedios siguen siendo más creíbles que Facebook® y Twitter® en la comunicación de crisis; y que los participantes que afrontaron directamente a las afectaciones por el terremoto evaluaron mejor la reputación organizacional de Movistar® y mostraron menos reacciones secundarias. La reputación construida por la empresa, previo a la crisis, y las acciones de RSE después del terremoto pudieran explicar estos resultados.

Palabras clave: Facebook; Twitter; comunicación; crisis; terremoto

Abstract

This research chooses the 2016 Ecuador (Manabí) Earthquake as a case study of the crisis associated with the loss of the telecommunications service from Movistar Co. In this scenario an experiment was developed with 180 university students, in which the variables Type of Medium, and Involvement were manipulated; and three dependent variables were measured: Reputation, Secondary Crisis Reaction, and Secondary Crisis Communication. Results show CyberMedia is still more credible than Facebook and Twitter regarding crisis communication, and that participants who directly faced the consequences of the earthquake better evaluated the organizational reputation of Movistar and showed less secondary reactions, probably due to the reputation of Movistar prior to the earthquake and its social responsibility policies in the aftermath of it.

Keywords: Facebook; Twitter; crisis; communication; reputation, earthquake


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